We are independent & ad-supported. We may earn a commission for purchases made through our links.

Advertiser Disclosure

Our website is an independent, advertising-supported platform. We provide our content free of charge to our readers, and to keep it that way, we rely on revenue generated through advertisements and affiliate partnerships. This means that when you click on certain links on our site and make a purchase, we may earn a commission. Learn more.

How We Make Money

We sustain our operations through affiliate commissions and advertising. If you click on an affiliate link and make a purchase, we may receive a commission from the merchant at no additional cost to you. We also display advertisements on our website, which help generate revenue to support our work and keep our content free for readers. Our editorial team operates independently from our advertising and affiliate partnerships to ensure that our content remains unbiased and focused on providing you with the best information and recommendations based on thorough research and honest evaluations. To remain transparent, we’ve provided a list of our current affiliate partners here.

What are Percentiles?

Tricia Christensen
By
Updated May 17, 2024
Our promise to you
WiseGeek is dedicated to creating trustworthy, high-quality content that always prioritizes transparency, integrity, and inclusivity above all else. Our ensure that our content creation and review process includes rigorous fact-checking, evidence-based, and continual updates to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Our Promise to you

Founded in 2002, our company has been a trusted resource for readers seeking informative and engaging content. Our dedication to quality remains unwavering—and will never change. We follow a strict editorial policy, ensuring that our content is authored by highly qualified professionals and edited by subject matter experts. This guarantees that everything we publish is objective, accurate, and trustworthy.

Over the years, we've refined our approach to cover a wide range of topics, providing readers with reliable and practical advice to enhance their knowledge and skills. That's why millions of readers turn to us each year. Join us in celebrating the joy of learning, guided by standards you can trust.

Editorial Standards

At WiseGeek, we are committed to creating content that you can trust. Our editorial process is designed to ensure that every piece of content we publish is accurate, reliable, and informative.

Our team of experienced writers and editors follows a strict set of guidelines to ensure the highest quality content. We conduct thorough research, fact-check all information, and rely on credible sources to back up our claims. Our content is reviewed by subject matter experts to ensure accuracy and clarity.

We believe in transparency and maintain editorial independence from our advertisers. Our team does not receive direct compensation from advertisers, allowing us to create unbiased content that prioritizes your interests.

A percentile is best described as a comparison score. The concept is widely used in statistical analysis, but many will be most familiar with the term as it relates to standardized testing in schools. Unlike a percentage, where a student is given a percent number that is related only to her performance in a test or examination, a percentile is a number between 1 and 100 that relates the student’s performance to those of other students who have taken the test. In a set of numbers, the percentile for a given value indicates the percentage of numbers that are less than or equal to that value. For example, if a student scores 85% in a test and is in the 90th percentile, this means that 90% of students had scores that were less than or equal to 85%.

The concept may be easier to understand by comparison with percentage scores. A simple example would be a test with 100 problems, each worth 1% of the test. If a student answers 80 problems correctly, he scores 80%. In some cases, performance may be graded over ranges, for example, an “A” grade may indicate 90% or more, a “B” grade, 80-89% and so on. These grades may be based on the numbers of students who would typically be expected to fall within each category, but in themselves do not constitute a comparison with other students. If this student’s performance in the test is in the 95th percentile, 95% of those who took the test scored 80% or less, or to put it another way, he is in the top 5%.

Calculating Percentiles

To calculate percentiles for a set of results, the values are first arranged in ascending order. The percentile for a given value can then be found by subtracting 0.5 from its numerical position in the sequence, dividing by the number of results, then multiplying by 100. For example, if there are 25 results with values ranging from 31 to 93 and the result 47 ranks as the tenth in numerical order, the percentile for this result is 10 – 0.5, divided by 25, then multiplied by 100, giving 38. This means that 38% of results are less than or equal to 47. It is also possible to do the calculation for hypothetical results that did not actually occur, that is, to find what the percentile would be for that result.

Percentiles in Education

Although this statistical method has many applications, one of the best known is in education. Especially when testing is standardized, it is meant to serve a diverse group of people and accurately gauge not only individual performance, but also comparative performance. When looking at a data set, percentiles can help better gauge the middle or median performance of students. Many students will cluster into the median area, earning percentiles anywhere from 25 to 75, while a few will far surpass this, reaching into the 90s range. Average and median scores are computed into expected results and can show how most people are performing, as well as how each individual student is performing.

Percentiles can further show if performance in certain areas is poor. If every student taking a test answers the same question incorrectly, or if most of the average students do so, this may indicate a problem. It may be that the question is badly worded or it may be that this area of the subject has not been adequately covered during the course. With increasingly standardized tests in the academic setting, this method can weed out bad questions and identify areas for improvement in courses or teaching methods.

Another educational use for percentiles is to check testing in population groups. For example, a whole high school in an urban neighborhood may score well below average in academic tests. Even if a couple of pupils score well — these are known as outliers — it is clear that there is a problem. Possibly, the children are not prepared properly to take the test, or the test is not understood by the students because of cultural or language barriers. By considering percentiles as well as percentage scores, schools can better address all the needs of their students.

Other Applications

Percentiles have many other applications and may be found in many studies that employ statistics. In the scientific analysis of samples, this method may highlight important trends or problems. Scientists may, for example, test a series of air samples taken from an urban area for their sulfur dioxide content in parts per million (ppm). If the safe level is defined as 3 ppm and the percentile for 3ppm is 35%, then it can be said that 65% of samples exceed the safe limit and that action is required to reduce pollution levels. Other uses include analysis of the results of social surveys and opinion polls.

WiseGeek is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Tricia Christensen
By Tricia Christensen , Writer
With a Literature degree from Sonoma State University and years of experience as a WiseGeek contributor, Tricia Christensen is based in Northern California and brings a wealth of knowledge and passion to her writing. Her wide-ranging interests include reading, writing, medicine, art, film, history, politics, ethics, and religion, all of which she incorporates into her informative articles. Tricia is currently working on her first novel.

Discussion Comments

By anon324135 — On Mar 08, 2013

This doesn't make sense: "For example, if a student scores 85% in a test and is in the 90th percentile, this means that 90% of students had scores that were less than or equal to 85%.

It's only true if an 85% score is the lowest score of the top 10th percentile.

By Slothrop — On Jul 15, 2010

@Buer – Just to be sure that everyone is clear on this: percentiles are more a way to compare performances to understand a population and an individual's place in it than to evaluate an individual's abilities or characteristics.

By Buer — On Jul 15, 2010

If you have ever taken a standardized test – and chances are you have – then you've had your results placed according to percentile. While it's certainly useful to know your raw score on a test, it is often much more informative to see how you compare to your peers. For example, if a professor wants to be sure that all of his students will be challenged by an exam, he may choose to make it so difficult that no one scores above a sixty; having done that, looking at how all of his students performed is a much more reasonable way to evaluate them than judging them on the one hundred point scale.

Tricia Christensen

Tricia Christensen

Writer

With a Literature degree from Sonoma State University and years of experience as a WiseGeek contributor, Tricia...
Learn more
WiseGeek, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.

WiseGeek, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.