The benchmark interest rate is any rate used by investors as a standard to measure all other interest rates attached to various loans and investments. It is usually the absolute minimum rate that any investor can abide when determining whether to invest capital with a certain institution. In general, the further that a rate gets above the benchmark interest rate, the riskier the investment attached to that high rate. One such benchmark rate is the rate offered on United States Treasury bonds, which are backed by the security of the US Treasury.
Interest rates are important measurements for investors of all kinds. They can affect the yield on bonds, the interest paid on mortgage loans, the rates on credit cards, and many other financial transactions. While these rates fluctuate depending upon the circumstance and the financial instrument in question, they generally have some sort of standard from which they all deviate. The benchmark interest rate is the rate that acts as a kind of baseline, against which all other rates can be measured.
It is important to note that the benchmark interest rate will fluctuate depending upon prevailing economic conditions. In addition, there might be circumstances where a government will step in and adjust the standard rate as a way of pushing the economy to a balanced state. Investors are aware of the benchmark rate, and they judge their investments accordingly. They will search the various markets for favorable rates and judge if the risk is worth the possible return.
As an example of how a benchmark interest rate is utilized, consider US Treasury bonds. There is little chance of default occurring with these bonds, since they are backed by all of the funds within the US Treasury. For this reason, the interest that investors can collect on these bonds is relatively low compared to other bonds. Investors use the interest rate of Treasury bonds as a benchmark for all other bond rates.
Other bonds offer interest rates that are significantly higher than the benchmark interest rate of Treasury bonds. Such bonds are generally issued by corporations who are looking to raise capital for some financial reason. Of course, these bonds carry interest rates much higher than the benchmark as a way of compensating for the risk attached to them. While an investor might realize a greater profit on these bonds due to the difference between their rates and the benchmark rate, the possibility also exists that the corporations could default on their obligations, thus raising the investor's risk levels.