An offroad winch is a device mounted to the front or rear of an offroad vehicle such as an automobile or all-terrain vehicle. This device is used to either pull the vehicle forward over treacherous terrain, or haul other heavy objects to which the winch cable is secured. The size of the vehicle and the weight capacity of the offroad winch will dictate how useful the unit is for specific applications: smaller vehicles will only be capable of hauling a certain amount of weight, while larger vehicles can generally support more weight. This assumes that the weight capacity of the winch goes up when used in conjunction with a larger vehicle.
The design of an offroad winch is usually quite similar regardless of the type of vehicle on which it is installed. A long cable is wrapped numerous times around a drum, which is mounted inside a sturdy metal frame. A motor controls the movement of the drum; when it turns in one direction, the cable is fed out so it can be secured to a solid object. When the drum turns in the other direction, the cable is retracted, thereby allowing the vehicle to be pulled forward or other heavy objects to be hauled toward the vehicle.
The most common location for an offroad winch to be mounted is on a specially designed front bumper of an offroad vehicle, though some winches may mount at the rear of the vehicle to aid in hauling heavy items. If the vehicle does not feature the specially designed bumper, adapters can be purchased to ensure the winch is securely fastened to the vehicle's frame. The winch must be secured properly to prevent damage to the vehicle as well as to the winch itself.
Most offroad winch models feature an electric motor that controls the drum. This motor is in turn controlled by a hand unit that the user holds during use of the winch. The controller plugs into the winch unit — some winches feature a wireless controller instead to allow for more mobility of the user during operation — and it features basic controls that feed the line out, retract it, and kill the motor in case of an emergency. In most cases, the user must stand outside of the vehicle's cabin in order to safely operate the winch. He or she can monitor the progress of the vehicle as it is pulled forward or as objects are pulled toward the vehicle.