A quantitative fund is a type of investment fund in which the investment decisions are made solely based on mathematical calculations. All of the decisions are based on a quantitative analysis of the concerned investments. These investments are assigned values by a computer, which rates securities based on measurable statistics and reacts accordingly.
This type of fund, also called a quant fund, employs computers to sort through financial data and identify predictable patterns in the data. The use of computers to sort through this information allows a large amount of data to be analyzed quickly. Computers can use this data to react to changes in the data much faster than a human being ever could, allowing split second investment decisions. Quantitative funds have become a popular choice for launching mutual funds.
An investment fund is a way of investing money in securities, in which several people pool their money and invest together. This allows the investors to have a range of securities that is broader than they would be able to individually. In pooling the money, they share both the costs and benefits of investing in the securities. A security is an entity that represents a financial value, such as a banknote, a bond, or a share of stock.
Quantitative analysis is part of the broader practice of quantitative finance, which is the application of mathematics to finance. It is the process of analyzing the numerical characteristics of a security, such as sales, margins and market share, and assigning a value based on those characteristics. Quantitative research looks at data from a company or security over a period of time to determine trends.
Funds that are run entirely by quantitative analysis are known as quant shops, where the computer makes all decisions on buying and selling. This removes any emotional element that might influence an investment fund manager in the same circumstances. A quantitative fund, however, is often overseen by a fund manager who makes the final decisions, mixing the quantitative data with human judgment.
Quantitative funds are not infallible. They must be programmed to analyze data, and mistakes in the programs can cause errors in the data analysis. Additionally, the term quantitative fund does not imply anything about the actual investment strategy; it is merely a means for implementing a strategy. A thorough knowledge of investment strategy is necessary for a fund manager to run a quantitative fund.