A light rail project is one that seeks to build the infrastructure necessary to support a light rail service. This type of transportation service incorporates trains that often run on a relatively short system, such as within a metro area. These trains are typically run on electricity, though diesel may also be used in limited circumstances. A light rail project will often use an existing right of way already owned by a governmental agency in order to cause as little impact to private landowners as possible.
The funding for a light rail project often comes from the government entities in which the project is created. This may include both federal sources and local sources, and is usually some combination of the two. In most cases, bonds are issued to pay for the project as the upfront costs are too much for most entities to cover without some sort of financing option. These bonds may take 20 to 30 years to pay off.
Depending on the jurisdiction involved, along with local and national laws, it may be necessary to obtain public approval through a referendum before a light rail project can be undertaken. This gives voters a direct say in not only whether the project should be done, but also at what expense and at what impact on local taxes. Property taxes, sales taxes, and even hotel taxes may be used to pay for the project.
Most traditional light rail systems run at ground level. Therefore, the infrastructure needed includes rails and some sort of electrical conduit to help power the train. The rails and electrical lines are often placed near or alongside roads, especially major routes often traveled by commuters. In order to do this, grading and reinforcements will likely be necessary, along with the possibility of altering current automobile routes in order to accommodate the light rail project.
Along with the track itself, other portions of a light rail project will also need to be completed. Train stations, parking lots, bridges, and other similar projects are necessary to make it convenient for riders to utilize the system. For example, in order to get commuters to use the system, areas for light rail park and ride exchanges will likely be needed.
It should be noted that a light rail project may also refer to an underground project or elevated project, though this is not the traditional use of the term. Rather, an underground train project is usually called a subway. A transit system elevated above the ground is usually known as an elevated train. Other than the location of each, both will often function in ways very similar to the light rail system.