A direct tax is a tax which is sent directly to the government by the taxpayer, with the taxpayer bearing sole responsibility for paying the tax. This is in contrast with an indirect tax, which is shifted to someone else, as in the case of sales taxes which raise the price of goods. Many nations have tax systems which integrate several different kinds of taxes, including several forms of direct tax which taxpayers can be liable for in any given year.
The classic example of the direct tax is income taxes. Income taxes are calculated in various ways, but ultimately they all involve a direct payment from the taxpayer to the government, based on the amount of money the taxpayer made in a given year. Typically taxpayers fill out a tax return, a document which provides information about what they earned and any special circumstances which might have an impact on their tax liability. Many governments allow people to take deductions or credits which will reduce overall tax liability.
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Another form of the direct tax is property taxes. Property taxes, levied on the property owner, are usually in the form of a percentage of the current value of the property. Taxpayers must send tax payments directly to the government agency, usually local, which handles property taxes. Estate and gift taxes are other examples of direct taxes which can be seen in many nations around the world.
Taxpayers are responsible for ensuring that they declare anything which they might have an obligation to pay tax on and that the tax is paid in full and on time. Failure to do so can result in penalties which may include confiscation of property, garnishing of wages, and prison time, in cases where people appear to have behaved fraudulently. Sometimes people are sent a bill for a direct tax, as usually happens with property taxes, for example, and in other cases they are expected to self report any activities which might result in a tax liability.
Paying a direct tax can become complicated, especially when people have unusual financial circumstances. People and companies may retain the services of a tax lawyer or accountant to assist with tax preparation to ensure that everything is properly documented and the correct amount of tax is paid. Using professional services can also provide taxpayers with access to people who are familiar with the most recent changes to the tax code.