Prescription drug addiction is classified in different ways, including addiction by medicine type and whether the addiction is legal dependence. Some people are able to obtain legal prescriptions in dishonest ways, and drug dependence is usually regular and medically approved use, where addiction is use in a manner not approved by doctors. In either case, most people who are withdrawing from addictive drugs require support, and should know abrupt cessation of some prescription medicines is potentially dangerous.
Many different classes of medication result in prescription drug addiction. The main groups of drugs that cause addiction are pain medicines or opioids, tranquilizers/benzodiazepines, a few barbiturates, and stimulants, which are most often used to treat disorders like attention deficit disorder (ADD). A partial list of some of these medicines follows:
Opioids and Pain Medicines: hydrocodone (Vicodin®), oxycodone (Oxycontin®), codeine, morphine, fentanyl, and meperidine (Demerol®).
Tranquilizers/Benzodiazepines: alprazolam (Xanax®), clonazepam (Klonipin®), diazepam (Valium®), oxazepam, and lorazepam (Ativan®)
Stimulants: methylphenidate (Ritalin®, Concerta®) dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall®).
There are other medications in different classes that also create addiction. Most times, people develop prescription drug addiction with one of the drugs in the classes above. Sometimes people abuse two classes; for example, they use stimulants to counteract effects of pain medication, barbiturates, or tranquilizers.
Some of the features of prescription drug addiction are that people are using a medicine that they do not need. They’re often using it without permission of a physician, or obtaining it from doctors through deceptive means. Going without the addictive medicine leads to withdrawal symptoms, and typically it’s necessary to use increasing amounts of the drug as the body builds tolerance to it.
Need to use the drug may supersede safety considerations. Too much Vicodin® or many of the other pain relievers means taking constant overdoses of acetaminophen, which can quickly damage the liver. Using many of the other drugs in higher than normal amounts can be toxic, risking a fatal drug overdose. Moreover, danger can exist when using a cold turkey approaches to quitting some of these medicines. In particular, quitting benzodiazepines abruptly can result in seizures.
Prescription drug addiction is compared with drug dependence, a common feature of long-term use of many of these drugs. Many people use these medicines exactly as prescribed and over time their bodies become addicted to them. What is different is that with legal use, doctors can help patients who want to come off of any of these drugs by setting up a tapering program. If a person is not being legally prescribed a medicine, tapering may not be an option.
Both those dependent and addicted need medical support to stop use of a prescription drug. This support may be at home only if the person can taper off a medication. Those who are suffering from illegal prescription drug addiction may require hospitalization in order to quit taking a drug, and they are likely to need ongoing drug counseling to remain free of addiction.