There may be many factors that can contribute to pediatric brain injury, some of which are congenital and others acquired. Accidental trauma to the head can cause brain injury in children of all ages. Cerebral palsy is a cause of pediatric brain injury. Birth trauma or injury resulting in oxygen deprivation are other types of brain injury in children.
Pediatric brain injury refers to conditions in which a portion of a child's brain has malfunctioned or has been damaged. In some cases, complications during childbirth may lead to a birth trauma. Injuries to the infant's brain may cause irreversible brain damage if the newborn does not receive adequate oxygen. Such complications in childbirth may be caused by many factors. If the mother's placenta becomes damaged, a condition known as hypoxia may lead to pediatric brain injury.
Cerebral palsy is a disease that damages the central nervous system and brain function. This condition leads to a type of pediatric brain injury. Children with this condition will typically exhibit symptoms during the first 12 months of life. Motor skills and coordination will most likely be affected as a result. In infants and toddlers with this disease, lesions on the surface of the brain may interfere with normal function.
Accidental injuries are another type of pediatric brain injury. Bleeding or hemorrhaging inside the brain may be life threatening if immediate medical care is not given. Sports injuries are one common type of pediatric brain injury often seen in hospital emergency rooms. Other accidents such as childhood drowning account for pediatric brain injuries as well.
Illness caused by bacterial or viral infection may also cause injury to a child's brain. Spinal meningitis is one such disease that may cause serious complications if swelling of the brain is not controlled as soon as possible. If treatment is not successful, brain damage may result.
Although it is uncommon for very young children to develop multiple sclerosis, this condition may cause pediatric brain injury in severe cases. The central nervous system and spinal cord may also be damaged. Problems with vision are another typical symptom.
Childhood brain tumors, both malignant and benign, are considered to be pediatric brain injuries in many cases. A pediatric neurologist may treat young patients who have brain tumors that have caused significant impairment. Some symptoms of brain injury due to a tumor may be headaches and vision problems, as well as difficulty with coordination.