Acute renal failure occurs when one or both kidneys suddenly stop working properly. Acute renal failure treatment options vary according to the direct cause. In some cases, blood or fluids must be replaced. Some medications can lead to sudden kidney failure and must be discontinued once this occurs. In some instances, medications can be prescribed to try to improve the function of the kidneys, or surgery may sometimes be indicated as the best acute renal failure treatment option.
When dehydration is suspected to be the cause of the problem, acute renal failure treatment may include IV fluids. The patient is typically admitted into the hospital, and fluids are administered directly into the bloodstream through a small tube known as an IV that is inserted into a vein. If blood flow to the affected kidney has been interrupted or if there has been severe bleeding, the patient may require extra blood.
Some medications may occasionally cause kidney failure. When this happens, acute renal failure treatment may only involve discontinuing the medication that caused the problem. Some of the types of medication that are the most prone to causing kidney failure include certain antibiotics, ibuprofen, and chemotherapy drugs.
In certain cases, prescription medications may be used as an acute renal failure treatment method. Immunosuppressants may prove helpful if the kidney failure is associated with an autoimmune disorder. Other medications may be used for different causes of kidney failure, such as kidney disease.
Surgical intervention may become a necessary acute renal failure treatment option. If a blockage is present in the urinary tract, kidney function often returns to normal immediately following the surgical procedure to remove the blockage. Kidney stones are a common cause of this type of blockage. If the blockage cannot be successfully removed, a device such as a catheter may be inserted so that urine flow can be routed around the blockage.
A medical procedure known as dialysis may be required as an emergency acute renal failure treatment method. This procedure consists of removing the blood from the body and sending it through a filtering machine that cleanses the blood before returning it to the body. Dialysis may be a temporary treatment measure until other treatment options have time to return the kidneys to a normal level of function. In the most severe cases, dialysis may be necessary indefinitely or until a kidney transplant can be performed.