The human brain is a sophisticated network of neurons that shoot electrical charges across sections of the brain as a means of communication. Neurons also release a chemical that crosses gaps to prod other neurons to send messages. Different brain areas are responsible for different tasks, but it is essential that all areas of the brain work in conjunction to perform tasks, as the majority will require more than one of the brain areas.
The first division of brain areas is the split between the left and right hemispheres. Each side of the brain has a specific duties. The left side of the brain deals with logic and analysis. This hemisphere is used for math and language. The right hemisphere deals with visual and sensory information. This side recognizes patterns and uses visual spatial skills. The two sides work together by combining the visual memory of the right brain with the language and analytical skills of the left.
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The brain areas are further subdivided into the frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and the temporal lobe. Each of these also has a unique role, and each of these also communicates and works with the other areas of the brain. Brain function is almost always a collaborative effort between the different sections.
The frontal lobe handles the most difficult tasks. Cognition, memory, and planning are all directed by this area, which is found on the front section of the brain. If this area is damaged, there is a major impact on the entire neurological system. Without the ability to plan, comprehend, or store memory, a person is left with an inability to concentrate and focus, so new tasks become a huge challenge.
The parietal lobe is in charge of sensory information. It deals with cognition, touch, visual spatial orientations, and language. It is also responsible for directing movement and body recognition. Without the parietal lobe, a lack of body awareness could result in injury and the lack of language skills would make one unable to write.
The occipital lobe handles visual stimuli. Its location at the back of the brain keeps it relatively well protected, but were it damaged it could produce hallucinations, loss of sight, and loss of ability to recognize colors. Eyes do the "seeing," but the occipital lobe processes the information and translates it for the rest of the brain.
Finally, the temporal lobe is the auditory manager. Hearing is processed by this lobe, and it also interprets semantics and language. The hippocampus is housed in the temporal lobe as well, and it is involved in both short- and long-term memory.