Dandruff can result from several different causes and can be reduced in several ways. Certain lifestyle changes might help prevent and treat a dandruff problem, and there are numerous homeopathic and natural remedies that you can make and try out yourself. If none of the simpler remedies work, you can reduce dandruff with several medicinal remedies that can be obtained over-the-counter or from a doctor.
A balanced diet may prevent or reduce dandruff, while a diet that is rich in saturated fat and sugar can create an environment that is more favorable for the bacteria and fungi that can cause dandruff. Reducing the amount of saturated fat, sugar, and junk food in your diet may help combat a dandruff problem. Other simple lifestyle changes that you might try are increasing your intake of zinc and vitamin B, either through diet or with supplements, and lowering your stress levels. Excessive use of hair products can cause dry skin that will lead to dandruff, so using fewer products in your hair could also help reduce dandruff.
Dandruff can be caused by your scalp becoming either too dry or too oily, and there are many natural remedies that are believed to help these problems. Massaging your scalp with a natural oil such as olive oil, sesame oil, or almond oil before you shampoo can moisturize your scalp and reduce dry flakes. Another popular remedy is applying vinegar, such as apple cider vinegar, to your scalp after shampooing to control bacteria and excess oil. Adding a small amount of mouthwash to your regular bottle of shampoo can kill bacteria and help reduce any dandruff caused by it. Lemon juice and aloe vera can also be applied to the scalp to address itchiness and flakes.
If lifestyle changes and natural remedies do not work for you, there are medicinal treatments meant to reduce dandruff. Zinc pyrithione and ketoconazole are both anti-fungals that are found in anti-dandruff shampoos. These ingredients are usually available in over-the-counter products, but some countries may require a prescription from a doctor for stronger concentrations. Salicylic acid is also available in over-the-counter or prescription products and may reduce dandruff but can also cause excessively dry skin. If you cannot find relief from any gentler treatments, your doctor may prescribe a steroid cream containing betamethasone.