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Although they are very similar, there are a few differences between jam and marmalade. First, jam is made from fruits like berries, while marmalade is made from citrus fruit. Jam is also made using mashed or pureed fruit, and marmalade is made by cooking down citrus fruit and zest. These preserves also have slightly different tastes.
The biggest difference between jam and marmalade is the types of fruit used to make them. Jams are usually made from non-citrus fruits, especially berries. Strawberry, blackberry, and raspberry jams are all quite popular.
Marmalade, on the other hand, is made from certain citrus fruits. Orange marmalade is usually the most popular type of marmalade. Lemons and limes, however, can also be used to make marmalade.
Another difference between jam and marmalade is how it is made. Jam is usually made with mashed or pureed fruit. Berries can be put in a large bowl and mashed with a fork or potato masher. Some people also use a food processor or blender to puree the fruit. Pieces of the fruit are usually present in the finished jam.
To make marmalade, the fruit is usually peeled first. The peel is then usually grated or very finely chopped. These parts are then usually all cooked down together. The seeds and white pith are usually removed before cooking, however, since they can add an unpleasant bitter taste.
Many people also notice a taste and texture difference between jam and marmalade. Jam is usually a little sweeter. It also typically has a more uniform consistency.
Marmalade is usually a little sour, but not always. Preserves made with lime or lemon are usually more sour. The citrus peel zest, which adds to the sour taste, can sometimes be felt in the texture of marmalade as well.
Despite their differences, jam and marmalade are very similar. In many areas, these two terms are often used interchangeably. Jelly is also very similar, but it usually has a smoother consistency, since it is typically made from fruit juice.
Before canning jam and marmalade, it is important to sanitize all jars and lids in boiling water. Pectin can be added to the fruit mixture to help it solidify. Sugar is also usually added. The whole mixture is then cooked for a time, until it has reached the right consistency. It should then be poured into the sanitized canning jars, sealed, and stored.