What Is a Conveyor Machine?

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  • Written By: Dan Cavallari
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 16 August 2019
  • Copyright Protected:
    Conjecture Corporation
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A conveyor machine is a piece of equipment used to move heavy objects from one place to another, or to transport a consistent feed of materials from one place to another. Such machines may be powered or unpowered, and they can be used in a variety of settings, from construction sites to mines, and from factories to warehouses. The conveyor machine may consist of a series of bare rollers on which boxes or other large items can be pushed, or it may consist of a belt system that is driven by a motor.

Some conveyor machine designs do not use rollers or belts at all, but instead use alternate forms of propelling materials. A pneumatic conveyor, for example, can propel lightweight materials through a shaft using a blast of air. This is a common way to transport fly ash and other fine or granular materials. A screw conveyor machine uses an enclosed, wide-toothed screw that rotates to pick up material and transport it through the spiral-shaped teeth to another location. This system is good for materials that will not be damaged by the screw motion.


A belt conveyor machine will feature a rubberized belt strung over numerous rollers to propel goods forward. In most cases, the belt will be driven by a motor to provide a consistent speed and sure handling of items over the belt. This system is appropriate for bulky objects as well as finer materials such as crushed stone or dirt, which means this type of conveyor machine is likely to be found in factories and warehouses as well as in mines or quarries. During processing at a mine, materials may be moved up a conveyor system that elevates the materials off the ground and then drops those materials from a height through a screen or filter. This helps separate waste materials from the materials being mined.

Warehouses and factories may also use conveyor systems with bare metal rollers. These rollers will be set in a frame, each roller mounted parallel to the other, so that a long slide is formed. The rollers are usually unpowered, but they are able to rotate on bearings. This means a box or other large object can be pushed along the conveyor track easily, and it will keep going as long as the rollers are moving. Each individual roller will therefore need to be lubricated and/or cleaned regularly to ensure they do not stick and hold up the process.



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