What Are the Most Common Causes of Abdominal and Lower Back Pain?

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  • Written By: Sandra Koehler
  • Edited By: Rachel Catherine Allen
  • Last Modified Date: 15 September 2019
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Since the body's internal structures often work together, people sometimes get abdominal and lower back pain simultaneously. Symptoms can range from continuous discomfort or pain running through the abdomen and back, or the pain can be stemming from one area and radiating to the other. A blow to the kidneys, for example, can cause pain symptoms in the lower back, just under the rib cage which then travels or radiates into the abdomen. A kidney infection, on the other hand, can cause pain in the back, sides of the trunk, abdomen, and groin simultaneously.

Abdominal and low back pain is often caused by an injury to the muscles, tendons and ligaments, which causes inflammation. Inflammation is a protective mechanism that also triggers the healing process. However, injury may increase muscular contractions, which can guard against further injury. This swelling and consequent muscle stress can filter into the surrounding muscles, and in a sort of domino effect, result in radiating pain symptoms from the back to the abdomen or abdomen to the back.


Intestinal difficulties such as constipation can also cause this type of pain. This is because long-term constipation may lead to a buildup of waste products pushing on the intestinal walls. The intestines are located inside the abdominal or stomach area, and are in close proximity to the muscles of the low back. Severe or chronic constipation can result in abdominal and lower back pain to occur simultaneously. Endometriosis, a painful condition where the uterine lining grows outside of the uterus, is another example where both abdominal and lower back pain can occur in unison.

Though many instances of abdominal and lower back pain arise from issues that are not life-threatening, any unusual pain symptoms should be checked out, especially if it arises suddenly or is continuously painful. An abdominal aortic aneurysm, for example, is a serious medical condition that can sometimes cause abdominal and lower back pain. When an abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs, the abdominal blood vessel known as the abdominal aorta becomes enlarged. This can weaken the vessel walls and cause blood to leak out.

A significant abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause sudden and considerable abdominal and lower back pain. Pain symptoms may also radiate into the groin area. If the leak is significant enough, it can cause the blood vessel to rupture or split apart. In turn, this can cause a serious drop in blood pressure, called hypotension, a condition if left untreated can lead to unconsciousness and even death.



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