@spotiche5- I think that your best plan for a small outdoor deck is the use round, deep, terracotta plant pots for several vegetable plants. You can put plants such as peppers and tomatoes in these types of pots because they provide enough room for the root systems. They are also easy to place on top of a table or in the corners of your deck, which will make plenty of room for other outdoor activities like grilling or hanging out with friends.
As for planting your flowers, deck railing planters are ideal. Just as the article describes, they fit securely on your deck rails. This will allow you to plant flowers in them without taking up much space on your deck. Your flowers will also stand out and look great in this location.