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Dairy-free cupcakes are miniature cakes which contain no dairy derived ingredients. Whey, lactose, milk, cream, and butter are all dairy products, so truly dairy-free cupcakes are made without them. Even so, many popular flavors like chocolate, red velvet cake, vanilla, and carrot can all be made without dairy. As long as the proper substitutions for the usual dairy products are made, almost any flavor of cupcake can be made dairy-free.
Due to the nature of baking, it is necessary to combine various ingredients to create the signature sweet and fluffy texture of a cupcake. To do so, several different substitutes are used, sometimes in combination with milk or cream substitutes, to achieve the desired result. Different types of dairy-free cupcakes use different types of substitutes. Usually, the choice depends on other dietary restrictions, like gluten-free or animal product-free diets.
Typically, dairy-free cupcakes use a butter substitute and a milk substitute. There are many different types of both, and the ones that are used are usually chosen based on personal preference. Soy milk, rice milk, coconut milk, almond milk, and lactose-free milk are all used in place of cream and milk. For butter, a stick butter substitute, soy butter, other oils, and fruit purees are popular choices.
Fruit purees are a surprising but effective alternative to butter. The consistency and mass of the puree offers a satisfactory material that reacts well with other ingredients. Typically, the amount of butter called for in a recipe is twice the amount of necessary puree. Vegetable purees act similarly.
One challenge in making dairy-free cupcakes is to create a fluffy, cake-like texture without using butter. Whipping sugar with butter causes the fat in the butter expand, creating a light texture that bakes well. A stick butter substitute or egg whites that create lift are one way to overcome the dairy-free limitations. Oils typically don't work as well because the fat they provide is in liquid form.
Even in dairy-free cupcakes, there are many delicious possible flavors. As long as the substitutions produce a cupcake with the correct consistency, there is no reason that nearly every type of cupcake cannot be made dairy-free. Even chocolate cupcakes are possible, since bittersweet, or pure cocoa chocolate, usually contains no dairy products.
It is also possible to make dairy-free frosting and other toppings to finish the cupcake. Like the substitutions make in the cake recipes, frosting either use alternatives to traditional ingredients or entirely new ingredients for a different, but tasty, type of frosting. For instance, cupcakes can be sprinkled with nuts, sugar, sugar glazes, or other flavorful ingredients to create a dairy-free topping that serves the same purpose as frosting.